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JAPANESE TERMS

GENERAL TERMS

 

Aikido: The way of the harmonious spirit

Aikitaiso: Aikido warm-up exercises
Budo: Martial w
ay
Bushido: The way of the warrior 
Dojo: Training hall

Embukai: Public demonstration

Haragei: Awareness
Harakiri: Suicide ritual (Seppuku)

Kamiza: Dojo altar
Kanji: Ideograms/Chinese writing
K
iai: Energy shout

Koan: Zen riddle
Kumite: Empty handed fight
Mushin: Empty mind
Rei: Bow

Satori: Enlightenment
Shikaku: Blind spot
Shinto: The way of the gods
Tatami: Mat
Tekatana: Hand blade
Tori: Defender, also called nage
Uke: Attacker

Zanshin: Lingering spirit
Zazen: Sitting meditation
Zen: Meditation/emptiness

Zendo: Meditation hall

Zenbu: Warrior meditator

Zenbukai: Aikido organization

BODY PARTS

Ude: Elbow

Te: Hand

Men: Head

Ashi: Leg, foot

Mune: Chest

Koshi: Hip

Kote: Wrist

Hara: Stomach

Kubi: Neck

Kata: Shoulder

Tai: Body

 

STANCES

Heisoku dachi: Toes & heels together

Musubi dachi: Heels together & toes apart

Heiko dachi: Feet parallel hip apart 

Neko dachi: Cat stance

Kiba dachi: Horse stance

Zenkutsu dachi: Front knee bent long stance

TECHNIQUES

Ikkyo: First Principle

Nikkyo: Second Principle

Sankyo: Third Principle

Yonkyo: Fourth Principle

Gokyo: Fifth Principle

Koshinage: Hip Throw

Jujigarami/Jujinage: Cross Throw

Iriminage: Direct or Entering Throw

Kotegaeshi: Wrist Twist Throw

Shihonage: Four Direction Throw

Tenchinage: Heaven & Earth Throw

Udekiminage: Elbow Throw

Kokyunage: Breath Throw

Kaitennage: Rotation Throw

Kiriotoshi: Cut/Drop Throw

Udeosae: Arm Pin

Sumi Otoshi: Corner Drop

Ude Garami: Arm Lock

Tai Otoshi: Body Drop

Jiju-waza: Mixed Techniques

Kaeshi-waza: Counter Techniques

Henka-waza: Chainging Techniques

Tachi-waza: Standing Techniques

Suwari-waza: Kneeling Techniques

Nage-waza: Throwing Techniques

Katame-waza: Grappling Techniques

Atemi-waza: Striking Techniques

Sutemi-waza: Sacrifice Techniques

Buki-waza: Weapon Techniques

Kumitachi: Sword against sword

Tachidori: Defense against Sword

Randori: Freestyle/Multiple Opponents

Hanmi-Handachi: Standing against kneeling

Suburi: Basic exercises with sword or staff

Tantodori: Defense against Knife

Jodori: Defense against Staff

Kirikaeshi: Repeted Cuts

RANKS AND TITLES

Sensei: Teacher

Senpai: Senior Student

Kohai: Junior Student

Deshi: Student

 

Kyu: Ranks before Black Belt (Mudansha)

Dan: Black belt ranks (Yudansha)

Sotodeshi: Student who lives outside the dojo

Uchideshi: Student who lives inside the dojo

ATTACKS

 

Atemi: Strike to the body

Geri: Kick

Yoko geri: Side Kick

Mae geri: Front Kick

Mawashi geri: Round Kick

Ushiro geri: Back Kick

Ura mawashi geri: Hook Kick

Ushiro Mawashi geri: Spinning hook kick

Tsuki: Straight Punch

Oi tsuki: Jab straight punch

Gyaku tsuki: Cross straight punch

Yokomenuchi: Strike to the side of the head

Shomenuchi: Strike to the head

Morotedori: Grip with both hands

Katatedori: Wrist Grab

Ryotedori: Grabbing both wrists

Kubishime: Neck Choke

Katadori: Shoulder grip

Uraken: Backhand strike

WEAPONS & GEAR

Hakama: Traditional Pants

Obi: Belt

Gi: Uniform

Katana: Japanese Sword

Bokken: Wooden Sword

Jo: Short Staff

Tanto: Wooden Knife

Shinai: Bamboo Sword
Shinken: Sharp Sword
Wakizashi: Short Sword

Tsuba: Sword Guard

BODY DYNAMICS

 

Kamae: Ready Position

Mawashi: Revolving/Turning
Mawate: Turning

Irimi: To Enter

Tenkan: Turn

Kaiten: Body Shift

Tai Sabaki: Body Movement

Sugi Ashi: One foot follows the other

Ayumi Ashi: Crossed Step

Hajime: Begin

Yame: Stop

Maai: Vital distance

Seiza: Seated Position

Tachi waza: Stand Up

Nagare: Flow

Nage: Throw

Kime: Focus

Mokuso: Meditation

Misogi: Purification

Shizentai: Natural Body Position

Shikko: Knee Walking

Kokyu: Breathing

Kata: Form

UKEMI/FALLS

Ukemi: Roll/Fall

Mae Ukemi: Forward Roll

Ushiro Ukemi: Back Roll

Yoko Ukemi: Side Roll

REFERENTIAL

Hidari: Left

Migi: Right

Mae: Forward

Ushiro: Back/behind

Yoko: Sideways

Omote: In Front

Ura: Behind

Uchi: Inside

Soto: Outside

Gedan: Low Area

Chudan: Middle Area

Jodan: High Area

Gyaku: Reverse/Opposite

EXPRESSIONS

Dozo: Please/by all means

Gomen Nasai: Excuse Me

Onegai shimasu: Please

Domo Arigato: Thank you very much


Otagai ni rei: Bow to each other

Sensei ni rei: Bow to your teacher

Shomen ni rei: Bow to head place of the dojo

Gassho: A ritual gesture of Eastern origin, with hands pressed together in front of the chest. It can be used for prayer or as a sign of greeting, gratitude, reverence, or apology.

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